IfS Working Paper 04/2019

Introducing Young Unemployed to the “Sobering Reality of Work”: 'Cooling Out' in Active Labour Market Policies

Lukas Alexander

DOI: 10.25365/phaidra.145

This paper focuses on ‘cooling out’ in active labour market policies, a practice that lowers occupational aspirations aiming at a quick transition into regular employment and is tied to the neoliberal Activation paradigm. Using expert interviews, I investigate institutional patterns on multiple scales including individual experience of participants within the Viennese training program ‘Beyond the past’ (anonymized). This program offers transitional workplaces for young unemployed with the aim to activate them – prepare them for, and transfer them to the first labour market. In this regard, it is a perfect example of top-down policy integration, institutional cooperation and the interplay of Vienna’s regional labour market actors. The results indicate that the program is embedded in a quite hierarchical institutional structure, yet interactive processes are present on all levels and the local organisations has considerable discretion concerning the final implementation. Institutional experts rely unquestionably on ‘cooling out’ as necessary to achieve labour market integration. However, they still consider individual occupational preferences. The interviewed participants do not seem to be aware of the passive and active forms of institutionalised ‘cooling out’. Those diverging views of experts and young adults emphasize the importance of a subjective perspective on ‘cooling out.’

 Publications

2019

IfS Working Paper 03/2019

Über Umwege zu Müttern und Vätern gemacht: Reproduktionstechnologien und die (Ko-)Konstruktion von Technik und Geschlecht am Beispiel österreichischer Kinderwunschkliniken

Lisa Bock

DOI: 10.25365/phaidra.121

The aim of this article is to elaborate the (co-)construction of technology and gender using the example of presentation and discussion of the use of assisted reproductive technolo-gies in Austria. The analysis is based on feminist, technology-critical approaches.

The procedures of assisted reproductive technologies have opened up new understand-ings of nature. The concepts of motherhood and fatherhood are subject to constant change. The binary gender relations between women and men are still regarded as stable, although from a feminist, technology-critical point of view there is an ambivalent relation-ship between the use of technology and the interfered gender categories. Women are mostly seen as only users, while men are pushed into the background. The use of assisted reproductive technologies and the closely intertwined medical risks or legal regulations are justified with socially constructed attributions and desires such as good motherhood and femininity. Although it is rarely discussed, the use of technology in the discourse of reproduction no longer represents a marginal medical phenomenon. The materiality of assisted reproductive technologies altered the meaning to the newly emerging social norms.

IfS Working Paper 02/2019

Subjektpositionen im Internet: Eine wissenssoziologische Diskursanalyse im Social Web am Beispiel der Plattform unzensuriert.at

Valeria Zenz

DOI: 10.25365/phaidra.120 

The following working paper assumes that the internet (social web) allows subjects to take speaking positions, which they could not obtain without this infrastructure due to lack of resources. The bearer of this speaking position can be conceived of as social Actor promoting specific subject positions. The following paper analyses subject positions taken in the platform unzensuriert.at by using a sociology of knowledge approach of discourse analysis as elaborated by Reiner Keller. The paper assumes that the modes of construction of subject positions are connected with the communicated topoi. Discursive and non-discursive practices of the platform are analyzed by using content analysis.

IfS Working Paper 01/2019

Elective Co-Parenting: Entscheidungsprozesse zu gewählter Co-Elternschaft

Ines Jogl

DOI: 10.25365/phaidra.114

This paper is based on my master thesis and looks at the private life of individuals choosing elective co-parenting. Elective co-parenting involves two or more individuals who decide to get and raise a child together, without being in a romantic or sexual relationship with each other nor necessarily living together in a shared household.

Data were collected by using eight episodic interviews with respondents from Austria, Germany and Switzerland who are or have been in the process of being an elective coparent. Six out of the eight interviews were evaluated with the fine structure analysis and eight interviews with the topic analysis according to Froschauer and Lueger. The results were related to the individualization and pluralization thesis of Ulrich Beck and the RREEMM model by Lindenberg.

The main results focus on the decision-making process for being an elective co-parent as well as on the structuring conditions and the influence of norms and values during the decision-making process. Findings suggest that female participants choose elective coparenting because of their desire to also involve the biological father, although, in most cases the actual level of involvement did not matter. Male gay participants mostly see coparenting as the only way to be a parent of a biological child with paternal involvement. Family ideals, such as the advantage of a male parent within a family, also influence the decision for elective co-parenting.

2018

IfS Working Paper 03/2018

Zur Entwicklung der Latent Structure Analysis von Paul F. Lazarsfeld

Barbara Louis

DOI: 10.25365/phaidra.79

This working paper discusses key elements in the development of Latent Structure Analysis (LSA). A method to analyze qualitative data. LSA was developed by Paul F. Lazarsfeld and his colleagues at Columbia University, New York City. The paper also describes the initial version of LSA as published in 1950 and presents premises and assumptions required by LSA, ranging from a specific kind of data to probabilistic assumptions to its fundamental statistical components.

IfS Working Paper 02/2018

Die Akzentuierung des Unscheinbaren: Zur Stofflichkeit der sozialen Welt am Beispiel ‚Zero Waste‘

Raphaela Casata

DOI: 10.25365/phaidra.57

The 'material turn' marked the end of a long-lasting 'blindness' and 'oblivion' towards things in sociology. Since this turn, especially man-made artifacts received increasing attention, but nevertheless it often remains on the surface. The materiality of things and substances is hardly taken into account, although this can turn out to be fruitful for the understanding of social phenomena. A few works show when and how the mostly inconspicuous component of material culture becomes noticeable and appears to be socially and sociologically relevant. The interdisciplinary concept of 'substance stories' also promises new insights into social-material worlds: its perspective, which considers temporality and contextuality, focuses on the interrelation between substances, individuals and society. The phenomenon 'Zero Waste' shows how substances and their histories not only find entrance into empirical and theoretical discussions, but also emerge from their shadowy existence as central points of reference for an interpretation of the world and a community.

IfS Working Paper 01/2018

The Social Construction of Gender and Lifestyles - Theoretical Concept for Gender and Social Inequality

Susanne Vogl, Nina Baur

DOI: 10.25365/phaidra.46

This article offers a conceptual framework for researching the interrelation of gender constructsand lifestyles and suggests categories for empirical research. We argue that genderpractices and lifestyles are intertwined, vary according to social milieu, and are negotiatedon a relationship level. Thus, researchers have to consider behaviour and ascribed meaningto explain underlying reasons for certain behaviours. On the individual level, normativeorientations, values, and gender images influence semantics. Regarding pragmatics, theconcrete task share among partners on a household level is central. Thus, gender practicesare specific to social milieus and spheres of life. We argue that employment, care, andleisure time activities as well as consumption are important constructions for understandinggendered lifestyles. Our framework offers categories for better grasping differences ofgender constructions, doing and undoing gender through lifestyles in social milieus simultaneouslyand systematically.



2017

IfS Working Paper 05/2017

Die Vergesellschaftung Jugendlicher im Längsschnitt. Teil 2: Forschungsdesign und methodische Überlegungen einer Untersuchung in Wien

Jörg Flecker, Andrea Jesser, Barbara Mataloni, Maria Pohn-Lauggas, Christoph Reinprecht, Maria Schlechter, Andre Schmidt, Susanne Vogl, Veronika Wöhrer, Ulrike Zartler

Das Projekt "Wege in die Zukunft" am Institut für Soziologie der Universität Wien hat zum Ziel, zu verstehen wie Lebenswege und Zukunftsvorstellungen von Jugendlichen geprägt und geformt werden und wie sie sich nach der Pflichtschulzeit verändern. Der Fokus liegt nicht nur auf den Lebensumständen in Relation zur sozialen Herkunft, Bildung und Arbeitsmarktchancen, sondern auch auf Vorstellungen junger Menschen in Wien von ihrer Zukunft, wie sie sie sich wünschen, erträumen oder befürchten - und wie sich diese Vorstellungen verändern. "Wege in die Zukunft" basiert auf einem Mixed Methods-Längsschnittdesign, in dessen Rahmen einmal jährlich qualitative Interviews und Onlinebefragungen über einen Zeitraum von fünf Jahren durchgeführt werden. In der ersten Interviewwelle sind die Befragten etwa 14/15 Jahre alt und im letzten Jahr der "Neuen Mittelschule". Wir begleiten diese Jugendlichen ein Stück auf ihrem weiteren Weg. Unsere Befragten besuchten in der ersten Welle alle eine "Neue Mittelschule" in Wien. Basierend auf einer explorativen Phase im Frühjahr 2016 fand die erste Welle des qualitativen Strangs im Frühjahr 2017 mit 107 Jugendlichen statt. Die Interviews bestanden aus einem narrativen Teil, einem leitfadengestützten Teil und einem kurzen Sozialstatistikfragebogen. Die erste Welle der Onlinebefragungen wird Anfang 2018 durchgeführt. Dafür wurden die Fragebögen in zwei Phasen kognitiver Pretests und einem Standardpretest sehr sorgfältig verbessert. Für die erste Welle werden alle 117 "Neuen Mittelschulen" mit rund 7.000 SchülerInnen in Wien kontaktiert. Mit einer hohen Ausgangszahl in beiden Strängen sind wir zuversichtlich, auch über den Zeitraum von fünf Jahren eine ausreichend hohe TeilnehmerInnenzahl zu erreichen.


2016

IfS Working Paper 01/2016

Bildung im Dritten Lebensalter. Potentiale und Zugangsbarrieren der Bildung in der nachberuflichen Phase

Anna Wanka und Vera Gallistl

In unserer heutigen Gesellschaft sind soziale Rollen älterer Menschen freier gestaltbar geworden - die ehemals als „Ruhestand“ bezeichnete Zeit der Pension stellt zunehmend eine Zeit flexibler Freizeitgestaltung und Selbstverwirklichung dar. In dieser neuen „Lebensphase Alter“ nimmt Bildung eine wichtige Rolle ein. Doch ist Bildung nach dem Erwerbsleben ebenso selektiv wie in jüngeren Jahren? Selektionsprozesse der nachberuflichen Bildung und ihr Einfluss auf die Lebenschancen im Alter werden noch selten von der Bildungsforschung thematisiert. Der vorliegende Artikel fragt nach der Strukturierung ungleicher Zugangschancen und Barrieren zu Bildung im Alter. Empirische Erkenntnisse für Österreich basieren auf der fünften Welle des Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE 2013). Sie zeigen eine geringere Bildungsbeteiligung im (höheren) Alter, die allerdings weniger vom biologischen Alter an sich, sondern stärker vom Bildungshintergrund und dem subjektivem Gesundheitszustand älterer Menschen beeinflusst wird. Ältere Menschen nehmen nicht durch altersbedingte Abbauprozesse weniger häufig an Bildung teil, sondern leben in sozialen Umwelten, die weniger förderlich auf (formale und non-formale) Bildungstätigkeit im herkömmlichen Sinne wirken. Dagegen spielen andere, informellere Bildungsformen im Alter eine wichtigere Rolle. Besonderes Potential zur Förderung von Bildungsaktivität im Alter zeigt der Übergang in die nachberufliche Phase als „window of opportunity“ in Kombination mit praxisorientierten Lernformen.